Make your own free website on Tripod.com








SAMURAI X
SAMURAI X ( roruni kenshin )













Home | SAMURAI X ( roruni kenshin ) | HISTORY OF JAPAN | SHOGUN & SAMURAI"S | LEGENDARY SAMURAI WARRIORS | SAMURAI CULTURE





email me @ mono_red@yahoo.com
 

e.jpg
















story
Long red hair, deep purple eyes, a cross-shape scar on his right cheek... he's about "this" tall, he wears a purple and white kimono. He's a lonely and thoughtful guy, but if his friends are with him he turns very cheerful. At his side there is a sword, he never abandons it, it's his sakabato, the reverse-blade sword.
If you run into him through the streets of Tokyo, be careful. Be very kind with him, don't make him mad, do not take advantage from the weak, but, above all, do not challenge him! Because he, he is not just a wandering samurai... behind that nice face is hidden a great warrior, one of the greatest swordsmen of the Bakamatsu Era, the hitokiri of the legend, the killer Battousai.
It's 1878, the eleventh year of Meiji Era, following the Japanese calendar, and wandering through the streets of Tokyo it is not difficult to run into the man who matches this description, Himura Kenshin, wandering samurai.
Kenshin's past is enveloped in mystery and myth. All it's allowed to know about him is told by the 4 OVAs and by the flashback of the TV series and the manga. Remained orphan when he was still a little child, he's initiated to the secrets of Mitsurugi Hiten by the master Seijiro Hiko, who decides to take him under his own protection after having saved him from the bandits who had attacked the caravan Kenshin was travelling with. Great are the skills of the young Shinta (this is his real name, that then he will change in Kenshin - heart of sword - following Hiko's advice) and he is noticed by the Ishin Shishi when, after an argument with his master, Kenshin leaves the mountains and heads towards Kyoto in order to serve the oppressed with his ability. But the Ishin make of him a hitokiri, and when Tomoe's love seems to lead him again to a life without blood and violence, her very true past brings him to draw his sword and her death takes him to war. During the war of the Bakamatsu Era, he gets the name of the killer Battousai, 'cause his fighting technique lies in cutting in half whoever steps in his way. With the restoration and the beginning of the Meiji Era, Battousai and his bloody sword disappear and give their place to Kenshin Himura and his sakabato.
Ten years have passed, ten years of wandering. Now Kenshin has arrived to Tokyo with the purpose to maintain the promise not to kill anymore, but using his sword in order to help the weaks. In the capital he meets a girl, Kaoru Kamiya, teacher assistant in the Kamiya Kasshin dojo, and he decides to stop at her in order to help her to rebuild her father dojo.
With this encounter, the adventures of the wandering samurai, told with great mastery and skill by the grand Nobuhiro Watsuki, start.
Episode after episode, adventure after adventure, Kenshin and Kaoru are joined by some new friends: the young Yahiko Myojin, through whose veins runs the blood of the ancient samurais, Sanosuke Sagara aka Zanza, a street fighter who hates the imperialists who killed his commandant, and the doctor Mrs. Megumi Takani. But besides the friends, Kenshin must face several foes: first the false Battousai, who wants to disgrace the name of the Kamiya, then Zanza himself and finally the Oniwabanshu, whose leader is the brave Aoshi Shinomori.
When finally is seems like Kenshin can now abandon his wandering and live an happy life together with his friends, a shadow from his past appears. It's Saito Hajime who's looking for the challenge with Himura, and because he needs his help in order to defeat the new enemy of Japan, Shishio Makoto, and because he's looking for revenge, on that young boy who over ten years earlier completely defeated his Shinsengumi troop.
The fight between the two is fortunately interrupted and "together" go and face the hitokiri Shishio and his army: the Juppon Gatana. The struggles get harder and harder and Kenshin must ask for help to his old master in order to learn the last secret of Mitsurugi Hiten. Strong of the new technique, he prepares, together with Saito and Sanosuke, to face the terrible enemy. But first he has to defeat all the ten members of the Juppon Gatana and Aoshi, who had swore he would have kill Kenshin in order to honour his fellows death. At the end of the amazing fight between Shishio and Kenshin, our hero is took back wounded but alive to Kaoru and all together return to Tokyo where they find waiting for Kenshin a new enemy, Enishi Yukishiro, Tomoe's younger brother who wants have his revenge for his sister's death. Kenshin is so forced to reveal his past and his feelings for her to Kaoru. Enishi results to be much stronger than any other opponents Kenshin had to face... Will be Himura able to defeat this last enemy and live in peace with the girl he loves? Or will Enishi take definitely away from him any hope for happiness?
I could talk for hours and pages about this wonderful manga where the action is so well detailed and the different fighting styles and techniques are described with a lot of emphasis and accuracy. And although the dramatic force with which many events are filled, Nobuhiro Watsuki finds the time also for comic and relaxing moments...
















MOVIE

The Requiem of the Ishin Shishi

The story begins with Takatsuki Gentatsu, his Gang "Ishinshishi" together with Shigure. A mysterious battle happens, when Kenshin reminisces his past battle on the place where they were going to (Yokohama). His friends, Kaoru, Sanosuke and Yahiko were with him, they got themselves on trouble: a group of sailor accost a young woman; a mysterious samurai named Shigure Takimi comes to the aid of a young maiden. Naturally Kenshin and his friends got involved and help Shigure alude the sailors as well as the police.
Soon afterwards Kenshin and the others learn that Shigure and Toki the young girl who was being harassed, have been close friends ever since the Toki's brother was killed. Although Kenshin and Shigure develop a friendship, a plot by Shigure to lead a violent rebellion places them on opposing sides. There is also a dark shadow from the past, a mutual acquaintance named Gentatsu, who will drive this two against each other in a duel to the death. As the two combatants pit their considerable skill against each other a corrupt officer prepares to kill them both

Duration: 90 min
Genre: action/drama
Production: Fuji TV/SPE Visual Works

Original story: Nobuhiro Watsuki
Director: Hatsuki Tsuji
Screenplay: Yukiyoshi Ohashi
Music: Taro Iwashiro
Copyright: N. Watsuki/Shueisha/Fuji TV/SPE Visual Works

@

OAV

Act 1 ~ The Man Who Slays


A young boy named Shinta is rescued by a swordsman named Hiko Seijuro. Believing his name to be too kind, he changes Shinta's name to Kenshin. Taking him under his wing, Hiko teaches Kenshin the deadly art of Mitsurugi - Ryu. Kenshin's amazing skills do not go unnoticed. Soon he is recruited by the Choshu faction and become a hitokiri or slasher. He soon becomes known as Battousai.

Duration: 30 min
Genre: action/drama
Production: Fuji TV/SPE Visual Works








Original story: Nobuhiro Watsuki
Director: Kazuhiro Furuhashi
Screenplay: Masashi Sogo
Character designs: Masahide Yanagisawa
Copyright: N. Watsuki/Shueisha/Fuji TV/SPE Visual Works

@

Act 2 ~ The Stray Cat


A young girl witnesses Kenshin's murder of another Hitokiri. Shocked by the rain of blood, the girl collapses in his arms. The morning afterwards, Kenshin learns that the girl, Yukishiro Tomoe, is a vagabond with no family and a hidden past. He considers killing her but decides to help her instead. Fate serves to bring misfortune on the couple as the Shogun takes deadly action.


Duration: 30 min
Genre: action/drama
Production: Fuji TV/SPE Visual Works








Original story: Nobuhiro Watsuki
Director: Kazuhiro Furuhashi
Screenplay: Masashi Sogo
Character designs: Masahide Yanagisawa
Copyright: N. Watsuki/Shueisha/Fuji TV/SPE Visual Works

@

Act 3 ~ Early morning in a mountain village


Kenshin and Tomoe revel in their roles as husband and wife. Tomoe harbors a dark secret that threatens to destroy this happiness, however. As links to her secret past invade on their lives, Tomoe's duty and quest for vengeance behins to gnaw at her soul. Can Tomoe fulfill her mission to destroy the one who has vowed to protect her? Will Kenshin find the truth in time?


Duration: 30 min
Genre: action/drama
Production: Fuji TV/SPE Visual Works








Original story: Nobuhiro Watsuki
Director: Kazuhiro Furuhashi
Screenplay: Masashi Sogo
Character designs: Masahide Yanagisawa
Copyright: N. Watsuki/Shueisha/Fuji TV/SPE Visual Works

@

Act 4 ~ The Cross-Shaped Wound


Is this really the true? Is Tomoe really scting to betray Kenshin? Or is she just trying to protect him from her past? She's gone and he's now looking for her. But on his way some new enemies are waiting for him... The battle gets harder and harder, he's wounded and bleeding, but the thought of her pushing him on to the final fight and a final act of love.


Duration: 30 min
Genre: action/drama
Production: Fuji TV/SPE Visual Works








Original story: Nobuhiro Watsuki
Director: Kazuhiro Furuhashi
Screenplay: Masashi Sogo
Character designs: Masahide Yanagisawa
Copyright: N. Watsuki/Shueisha/Fuji TV/SPE Visual Works

@

Seisouhen ~ Part 1


It's 1893, 15 years have passed since Kaoru and Kenshin's first met. Kenshin is away, he's fighting for the government, Kaoru is sick and by her memories are told when their first met, the fight with Jin-e, the struggle with Shishio, and when finallym everything seems to be ended and they can live in peace together, a message, the true about the cross-shape scar... trun of Kaoru and an old enemy, Enishi, who came back looking for his revenge...

Duration: 40 min
Genre: action/drama
Production: Fuji TV/SPE Visual Works

Written By: Yoshida Reiko
Directed By: Furuhashi Kazuhiro

@


Seisouhen ~ Part 2

Enishi is decided to take his revenge, but Kaoru saves Kenshin at the last moment. Together they return home, but soon Kenshin decides to wander again and leaves Kaoru and their son Kenji. To the memories follow the real events: Kenji's sword training with Hiko and the disease that inexorable wears out Kenshin and Kaoru. But befoer the end Yahiko takes Kenji back and Sanosuke convinces Shinta to return to the ones who love him.

Duration: 50 min
Genre: action/drama
Production: Fuji TV/SPE Visual Works

Written By: Yoshida Reiko
Directed By: Furuhashi Kazuhiro

@roruni kenshin end

walken.jpg

VOLUME 1








VOLUME 2










VOLUME 3









VOLUME 4









VOLUME 5










VOLUME 6










VOLUME 7











VOLUME 8










VOLUME 9










VOLUME 10










VOLUME 11










VOLUME 12










VOLUME 13










VOLUME 14









VOLUME 15










VOLUME 16










VOLUME 17











VOLUME 18











VOLUME 19










VOLUME 20











VOLUME 21










VOLUME 22












volume 23
volume 24
volume 25
volume 26
volume 27
volume 28

KENSHIN HIMURA BATTOUSAI
THE WANDERER COMES TO TOWN
DESCENDANT OF TOKYO SAMURAI ~ MYOUJIN YAHIKO
THE KASHIN SCHOOL REVIVES
A FIGHTINGMAN
THE CHALLANGE
-SPECIAL- WANDERER


THE KANJI
AND SO ANOTHER JOINS THEN
BLACK HAT
ONE-SIDED HEART
THE RIBBON AND THE SELFISHNESS
TWO HITOKIRIS
THE ORIGIN OF BATTOUSAI
A FINAL ACT UNDER THE MOON
A RUNAWAY BEAUTY


MEGUMI, KANRYUU...
ONIWABANSHU
KENSHIN'S COMPANY CHARGES
THE GIRL FROM AIZU
A REASON TO ACT
A WIND OF RAGE
ASSOULT ON KANRYUU'S ESTATE
-SPECIAL- WANDERER


SPY AND KEMPOIST
HANNYA'S COSTUME, SHIKIJOU'S SCARS
A SHOWDOWN OF STRENGHT
THE OKASHIRA, SHINOMORI AOSHI
FIERCE FIGHT
THE END OF A DUEL TO THE DEATH
TWO DESTINIES- MEGUMI
TWO DESTINIES - AOSHI


-SPECIAL- YAHIKO'S FIGHT- THE BEGINNING
                YAHIKO'S FIGHT- THE MIDDLE
                YAHIKO'S FIGHT- THE END
PATTERNS OF MEIJI SWORDMANSHIP
RAIJUUTA
SECRET SWORD
MEETING AT THE TSUKAYAMA ESTATE
YUTAROU'S SKILL
THE MATCH


A MAN OF IDEALS
ANOTHER SECRET SWORD
YOU DON'T KNOW ...
CONCLUSION!
NO NEED FOR WORRIES
SANOSUKE AND NISHIKIE - PART ONE
SANOSUKE AND NISHIKIE - PART TWO
SANOSUKE AND NISHIKIE - PART THREE
-SPECIAL- CRESCENT MOON OVER A COUNTRY IN WAR


THE WOLF REVIVES
CREUL AS A WOLF
DESPICABLE ACT
THE CONFRONT
THE WOLF BARES HIS FANGS
A CALL AND ANSWER
THE ONE WHO STOP THEM
THE REQUEST OF OKUBO TOSHIMICHI
MAY 14, 1878 ~ MORNING
MAY 14, 1878 ~ EVENING


TO KYOTO... - PART ONE
TO KYOTO... - PART TWO
MEGUMI AND KAORU'S FEELINGS
A CRUEL MAN
ON THE MEIJI TOUKAI WAY
MAKIMACHI MISAO
PLAYING TAG
EACH ON THEIR WAY
THE ABANDONED VILLAGE


THE BUDDING OF VIOLENCE
PORTRAIT OF AN AMBITIOUS MAN
BATTLE TACTICS
SOUJIROU, THE PRODIGY
ONCE AGAIN TO KYOTO
MEETING IN THE FOREST - PART ONE
MEETING IN THE FOREST - PART TWO
ARRIVAL IN KYOTO
SEARCH FOR A REVERSE BLADE


THE TEN SWORDS ACT
THE CURTAIN RISES ON A BRUSH WITH DEATH
TEN SWORD, CHO
THE THIN-BLADED SWORD
THE FORBIDDEN SWORD
SHAKKUU'S THOUGHTS
THE THREADS THAT LEAD ME TO YOU
HIKO SEIJUROU
MASTER AND STUDENT OF THE SWORD


HALF FEELINGS
AOSHI AND OKINA
A VIOLENT MEETING
OVERTURE TO DESTRUCTION
AOSHI Vs. OKINA
A DEATH-PLACE OF FREESH BLOOD
MISAO'S DECISION
THE ROOSTER AND THE BROOM
THAT NAME IS USUI


A BEGINNING OF INSTRUCTION
EVEN IF I THR...
BETWEEN DEATH AND LIFE...
ASSEMBLY OF THE TEN SWORD
ANOTHER TARGET
FLY LIKE THE WIND
THE GREAT KYOTO FIRE I
THE GREAT KYOTO FIRE II
THE GREAT KYOTO FIRE III


ONE DAWN
TEARS
A BEAUTIFUL NIGHT
LIKE SNAKES AND SCORPIONS
BRIGHT KING
A DIFFERENCE OF STRENGHT
FISTS OF CONVICTION
A WORLD WITH NO HOPE
FISTS CAN'T TELL


ADVANCE MOVE
USUI AND SAITOU'S MIND'S EYE
THE STABBING FANG
THE PROMISED TIME IS NOW
THE FINAL BATTLE BEGIN
AOSHI'S FIERCE ATTACK
THE TIME TO AWAKEN IS NOW
THE FIRST AMAKAKERU RYUU NO HIRAMEKI


ATTACK AND DEFENSE OF THE AOIYA
BOY'S FIGHT
GIRLS' FIGHT
SHADOW OF A TRUE DESIRE
THE COMING
THE GIANT AGAINST THE GREAT MAN - PART ONE
THE GIANT AGAINST THE GREAT MAN - PART TWO
SOUJIROU TAKES THE FIELD
SHUKUCHI


SOUJIRO'S PAST - A CHACE MEETING ON A MOONLIGHT NIGHT
SOUJIRO'S PAST - THUNDER AND MADNESS
SOUJIRO'S PAST - A SMILE IN THE FREEZING RAIN
A SPIRIT BROKEN
THE SECOND AMA KEKERU RYUU NO HIRAMEKI
THOSE WHO GATHER, THOSE WHO LEAVE
WHEN DID THE BATTLE BEGIN?
NOURISHMENT
DIVINE PROVIDENCE


A LOUD LAUGH
NOT YET GONE TO THEIR FATE
FLAME OF A DOUBLE-EDGED SWORD
THE FINAL SITUATION
THE THIRD AMAKAKERU RYUU NO HIRAMEKI
YUMI - FORMS OF LOVE
CONCLUSIONE - THE ONE TO DECIDE THE AGE
HOUJI'S DEVOTION
KYOTO EPILOGUE 1 - THE END OF THE TEN SWORD (PART ONE)
KYOTO EPILOGUE 2 - THE END OF THE TEN SWORD (PART TWO)


KYOTO EPILOGUE 3 - AN EARLY SUMMER MORNING
KYOTO EPILOGUE 4 - AN EARLY SUMMER AFTERNOON
KYOTO EPILOGUE 8 - IN THE BLUE SKY
DO YOU STILL HAVE THE SCAR?
THE ONE-ARMED MAN
SIGNAL FLARE OF REVENGE
EARTHLY JUSTICE
COMRADES
YAHIKO IMPATIENCE
THE TWIN STORMS RAGE!


INVINCIBLE TEKKOU
ASSASSIN'S TOOLS
A PIERCING QUESTION
THOUGHTS AT DAWN
OVERTURE TO A DEATH
PHANTOMS & REALITY
REMEMBRANCES 1 ~ HITOKIRI
REMEMBRANCES 2 ~ BATTOUSAI WAS BORN
REMEMBRANCES 3 ~ A MAN AND A WOMAN IN A RAIN OF BLOOD


REMEMBRANCES 4 ~ YUKISHIRO TOMOE
REMEMBRANCES 5 ~ MADNESS
REMEMBRANCES 6 ~ TURMOIL: 1864
A BRIEF INTERMISSION
REMEMBRANCES 7 ~ IN THE COUNTRY
REMEMBRANCES 8 ~ ENISHI'S VISIT
REMEMBRANCES 9 ~ SNOW, WHITE . . .
REMEMBRANCES 10 ~ FOREST OF BARRIERS
REMEMBRANCES 11 ~ DARK ARTS
REMEMBRANCES 12 ~ HARSH FIGHT


REMEMBRANCES 13 ~ THE CROSS SCAR
REMEMBRANCES 14 ~ AND SO TIME PASSED
THE NIGHT WEARS ON...
A RAY OF HOPE
CONFESSION - PART ONE
CONFESSION - PART TWO
FIREWORKS
AGAINST THE ARMTRONG CANNON
NEW INVINCIBLE TEKKOU


THE TIDES OF THE BATTLE
MECHANICAL ARTIST
THREE-FRONT BATTLE - FIGHT 1 - 1
THREE-FRONT BATTLE - FIGHT 1 - 2
THREE-FRONT BATTLE - FIGHT 2 - 1
THREE-FRONT BATTLE - FIGHT 2 - 2
THREE-FRONT BATTLE - FIGHT 2 - 3
THREE-FRONT BATTLE - FIGHT 3 - 1
THREE-FRONT BATTLE - FIGHT 3 - 2
BLUE SMOKE OF THE WOLF

serie TV

Kenshin Himura
Mayo Suzukaze
Kaoru Kamiya
Miki Fujitani
Yahiko Myojin
Miina Tominaga
Sanosuke Sagara
Yuuji Ueda
Young Sanosuke
Yuriko Fuchizaki
Saito Hajime
Hirotaka Suzuoki
Aoshi Shinomori
Yasuhara Yoshito
Megumi Takani
Mika Doi
Oguni Gensai
Yoku Shioya
???
Suzume
Noriko Namiki
Ayame
Kaori Yuasa
Tae Sekihara
Sumi Shimamoto
Misao Makimachi
Sakurai Tomo
Soujirou Seta
Hidaka Noriko
Shishio Makoto
Ikeda Masanori
Hiko Seijiyurou
Ikeda Shuuichi
Beshimi
Taiki Matsuno
???
Hannya
Akio Nojima
???
Hyottoko
Shozo Izuka
???
Shikijou
Kazuhiro Nakata
???
Okina (Kashiwajaki Nenji)
Koichi Kitamura
???
Yumi Komagata
Kanako Irie
???
Houji Sadojima
Hiroshi Takahashi
???
ChoSawagejo
Shinichi Fukumoto
???
Usui Uonuma
Sho Ryuzanji
???
Anji Yukyuzan
Yasuyoshi Hara
???


 Movie

Kenshin Himura
Mayo Suzukaze
Kaoru Kamiya
Miki Fujitani
Yahiko Myojin
Miina Tominaga
Sanosuke Sagara
Yuuji Ueda
Saito Hajime
Hirotaka Suzuoki
Takimi Shigure
Kazuhiko Inoue
Gentatsu Takatsuki
Nozomu Sasaki
Toki Takatsuki
Yuuko Miyamura
Yasuharu Musashino
Kappei Yamaguchi
Eibin Tamono
Juutaro Kosugi
Sadashiro Kajiki
Taketo Koan
???
Toshiyoshi Kawaji
Katsuya Shiga


OAV

Kenshin Himura
Mayo Suzukaze
Shinta
Masami Suzuki
Yukishiro Tomoe
Iwao Junko
Katsura Kogorou
Seki Tomokazu
Hiko Seijiyurou
Ikeda Shuuichi
Saito Hajime
Hirotaka Suzuoki
Yukishiro Enishi
Nozomu Sasaki


OAV Seishouen

Kenshin Himura
Mayo Suzukaze
Kaoru Kamiya
Miki Fujitani
Kenji Himura
Yuki Kaida
???
Yahiko Myojin
Miina Tominaga
Sanosuke Sagara
Yuuji Ueda
Hiko Seijiyurou
Ikeda Shuuichi
Yukishiro Enishi
Nozomu Sasaki
Megumi Takani
Mika Doi

MEIJI ERA (1868-1912)In 1867, after a civil war, the Tokugawa era found an end in the Meiji Restoration. The emperor Matsuhito moved from Kyoto to Tokyo which became the new capital; his imperial power was restored. The actual political power was transferred from the Tokugawa Bakufu into the hands of a small group of nobles and former samurai.
In order to regain independence from the Europeans and Americans and establish herself as a respected nation in the world, Meiji Japan was determined to close the gap to the Western powers economically and militarily. Drastic reforms were carried out in practically all areas.
The new government aimed to make Japan a democratic state with equality among all its people. The boundaries between the social classes of Tokugawa Japan were gradually broken down. Consequently, the samurai in reason of those social reforms lost all their privileges.
In order to stabilize the new government, the former feudal lords (daimyo) had to return all their lands to the emperor. This was achieved already in 1870 and followed by the restructuring of the country in prefectures.
The large expenditures led to a financial crisis in the middle of the 1880's which was followed by a reform of the currency system and the establishment of the Bank of Japan.
Catching up on the military sector was, of course, a high priority for Japan in an era of European and American imperialism. Universal conscription was introduced, and a new army modelled after the Prussian force, and a navy after the British one were established.
In 1889, a parliament, the Diet, was established while the emperor kept sovereignty: he stood at the top of the army, navy, executive and legislative power. The ruling clique, however, kept on holding the actual power, and the able and intelligent emperor Meiji agreed with most of their actions. Political parties did not yet gain real power due to the lack of unity among their members.
Conflicts of interests in Korea between China and Japan led to the Sino-Japanese War in 1894-95. Japan defeated China, received Taiwan, but was forced by Russia, France and Germany to return other territories. The so called Triple Intervention caused the Japanese army and navy to intensify their rearmament.
New conflicts of interests in Korea and Manchuria, this time between Russia and Japan, led to the Russo-Japanese War in 1904-05. The Japanese army also won this war gaining territory and finally some international respect. Japan further increased her influence on Korea and annexed her completely in 1910. In Japan, the war successes caused nationalism to increase even more, and other Asian nations also started to develop national self confidence.




Timeline: Meiji Era 1867-1912

The Meiji Era was one of modernization, including the development of a navy and army, railroads, and a parliament. Many relics of the past were destroyed and in the process, many old practices were abandoned.

1868 Edo renamed Tokyo. The Meiji era began.

1869 Daimyo return their lands to the Throne.

1870 The boundaries between the social classes broken down Some of the samurai became noble, other became "shizoku" and some other mixed with the common people.

1871 The feudalism decaded and a new system based on prefectures took its place. The prefecture are ruled by an administrator named by the central government.

1872 First locomotive line between Shimbashi (Tokyo) and Yokohama opened. Public shools opened all over the country.

1873 The Japanese calendar is substituted with the Western one. Weapons are no moreallowed in the cities.

1874 Itagaki Taisuke ask the goverment to estabilish a popular parliament.

1877 First Industrial Exhibition held at Ueno Park. A civil war led by Nanshu Saigo took place in Kyushu, but it's easily stopped.

1879 The First Tokyo-fu (Tokyo "Prefecture") Conference held.

1882 The first zoo opened in Ueno.

1885 The first prime minister, Hirobumi Ito, organized a Cabinet.

1887 Electricity illuminated Tokyo for the first time.

1888 Municipal organization system started.

1889 Dainippon Imperial Constitution promulgated. Tokyo-shi ("Tokyo city") included 15 ku (wards).

1893 Three Tama Areas incorporated into Tokyo-fu from Kanagawa Prefecture. Tokyo Station retains vestiges of the Meiji era.

1894 Tokyo-fu Government Building was completed in Marunouchi, Tokyo. Sino-Japanese War (-1895)

1902 Japan and Great Britain allied

1904 Russo-Japanese War (-1905)

1910 Korea became part of Japan
)

In Japan, during the feudal age, the society was divided into four classes: warriors, farmers, craftsmen and merchants.
The word samurai (who serve) appears for the first time during the Heian Period (794 - 1185) and from this moment the history of Japan becomes the history of Samurai, at least until the Meiji Restoration (1876).
The first model of Samurai was the horse-bowman. During the fights for the throne after the death of Emperor Tenchi (671) this new kind of warrior increased the agility and the velocity of the armies.
Born as a special rank in the warrior class under the Emperor's orders, the Samurai - who can be considered the knights of Japan - turned then into a very social elite between the ninth and the twelfth century. They were the most powerful class and they were lords and "policemen" at the same time. But they had also to follow a very severe honor code, with many sacrifices and a true loyalty to their own lord.
The behaviour laws for a samurai were encoded by the Bushido (the way of the warrior, bushi=warrior). This code was absolutely secret and was taught from father to son or from master to pupil during the training of the martial arts. The kids learnt the use of the bow (kyu jutsu), of the sword (ken jutsu) and also to fight with no weapon. The code of Bushido had the purpose to push the warrior towards the moral and spiritual integrity: the honor was everything for a samurai, it was so important than not only the bushido showed the way for a good life but also he described the better way to die, during a fight or performing seppuku (the suicide). The seppuku was prescribed in several circumstances, as after loosing a battle in order to not become a prisoner, for following the lord in the other world, when they disagree or disobey their lord or it was ordered if the samurai did not complete a mission with honor. If a samurai refused sappuku he would become a ronin looking for another lord or joining the outlaws.
In order to protect themselves during the battle, the samurai were wearing an armor that had also the purpose to distinguish the clan and the importance of the warriors. It was made of light protection that allow the movements. The most showy part of the armor was the helm (kabuto) that could have the strangest shape and was accompanied by a terrific mask,. In the XVII century the armor were abandoned.
The most important weapon for a samurai was the sword. Every warrior had two swords (daisho): a long one and a short one, from which they never divided and it was also called "the guardian of the honor". The long sword (daito - katana) was more than 60 cm long, the short one (shoto - wakizashi) was between 30 and 60 cm.
Samurai often gave a name to their sword and they considered it a kami, a divinity that could give or take life.
The most ancient sword were straight and they were imported from Korea or China. But since the samurai wanted more resistant sword, they soon become curved. The blade was made of a many metals with a big percentage of Carbon.
The blacksmith was very important in the craft of the swords, it was from him that the sword received its physical and spiritual characteristics. It was not enough for him to be a good craftsman, he had to have also very high spiritual quality he could transmit to the sword. Every family of blacksmith had a different technique that was passed from generation in generation.
When a samurai died his sword was given to his son or pupil.


Glossary

Batto jutsu - art of drawing the sword
Budo - Martial arts or fighting techniques
Bushido - way of warrior
Chokuto - straight sword used by the first samurai
Daimyo - feudal lord
Daisho - the two sword of a samurai (a long one - katana, a short one- wakizashi)
Giri - duties of a samurai
Kampaku - lord
Katana - long sword
Ken - sword - especially is ancient and with a double blade
Ken-jutsu - art of sword
Kyo-jutsu - art of bow
Kyuba no michi - way of horse and bow
Muramasa - sword maker
Naginata - long halberd
No-dachi - long sword
Ronin (o Ruroni) - samurai without lord
Ryu - martial arts school
Samurai - a member of the warrior class
Sensei - master
Seppuku - ritual suicide
Shogun - supreme general ("Lord of War")
So-jutsu - art of spear
Sohei - warrior monk
Tachi - long curved sword used by theancient samurai
Wakizashi - short sword


The Oniwaban was an elite of ninja who were at guard of the Edo Castle during the Togukawa Era.

For hundreds of years the IGA (Togakure) group of ninja were the major force in Ninjitsu, however smaller groups existed in other parts of Japan. Within these groups of spies, saboteurs, and killers, another family incread its power, namely the deadly KOGA of Shiga prefecture.

Interestingly, Shiga is next to the Mie prefecture in southern Japan. So, the KOGA and IGA inhabited the same mountain range, in two valleys divided by a mountain.

During the centuries, several leaders such as Takeda Shingen, Oda Nobunga, and perhaps the greatest general in Japanese History, Tokugawa Ieyasu all employed the Ninja to help control the country through a complex spy network.

With the close of the Sengoku era in 1600, three hundred years of peace and prosperity followed, known as the Tokugawa era. Up until this time the capital of Japan had been in Kyoto, but Tokugawa moved the capital to Edo (Tokyo today). He took with him three hundred Ninja from the KOGA and IGA groups as personal bodyguards. So the 'Oniwaban' group of ninja set, not as an espionage unit, but as an internal security unit. Later these Ninja guarded the castle in Tokyo.



***
These are all the information I've been able to find. If you notice any error or have more information, please contact me by e-mail.^_^

Here are some information about the Shinsengumi, the military group, rally existed, to which also Hajime Saito belongs.

Following the arrival of the American Commodore Matthew Perry, in 1853, Japan was found in a serious situation of chaos and panic.
Many samurais, in first place those of the lowest ranks, started to doubt about the real ability of the Shogun to defend the nation and they abandoned their lords to reach Kyoto and join the revolutionary movement.
Nevertheless they didn't know what movement to join and in this way they created a even more chaotic situation in the capital. In fact there were different schools of thought all with the common patriotic ideal of helping Japan.
At the same time, in the district of Tama, near Edo (the actual Tokyo), there was a school of kenjutsu, the Shieikan, where the Tennen Rishin Ryuu was practiced. The teacher was Kondou Isami, and among his students there were Hijikata Toshizou, Okita Souji and Inoue Genzaburou, that were just like brothers. There were also others that attended the school to only receive a free lunch as Yamanami Seisuke, Harada Sanosuke and Nagakura Shinpachi. When at the dojo they heard about the situation of Kyoto, these samurais decided to reach the capital, pushed by a strong patriotism, followed by some other disciples.
To Kyoto, they enlisted with the Kiyokawa Hachirou and they were enrolled as "Defenders of Kyoto" by Matsudaira Katamori, the Daimyo of Aizu.
In reality Kiyokawa, although officially declaring himself on the part of the Bakufu, it was on the other side and he wanted to gather as many samurais as possibile and train them as Ishin Shishis. The Shogun however was informed about his betrayal and he gave order to murder Kiyokawa before its plan was realized. After these facts Kondou decided to support the Shogun and founded the group of the Shinsengumi composed of 13 members reunited under the kanji "Makoto" (loyalty).
The hierarchical structure was the following:

Captains: Serizawa Kamo, Kondou Isami, Niimi Nishigi
Vice Captains: Hijikata Toshizo, Yamanami Keisuke.


At this point different other samurais joined to the group.
Nevertheless the relationships among the members inside the Shinsengumi were not very friendly. This also because of the behavior of people as Serizawa and Niimi that hid behind the name of the Shinsengumi all of their iniquities. Thanks to the attitude of Serizawa that was often drunk and wrangler, the Shinsengumi gained the appellative of "Wolves of Mibu", since to the beginning the troops were gathered in the village of Mibu, so vagabond of Mibu (Mibu-ro) became Wolves of Mibu (Mibu-ro).
Niimi, after a fire hung to an inn by Niimi himself and from Serizawa, was ordered to practice seppuku by Serizawa himself who manage to revert on the companion the whole guilt.
Following these facts, Serizawa was murdered by a special group, together with the other corrupted Shinsengumi, and Kondou and Hijikata decided to make the entry of new samurais in the group more difficulty and to make the rule more severe. This way whoever was not involved according to the rules of honor of the samurais was killed or it was ordered to practice seppuku.
The assignment of the Shinsengumi was essentially to patrol the roads of Kyoto and keep the peace and the order. They swore to protect Kyoto with their own sword.
In that epoch who was not able to prove his identity and not to be a member of some group that plotted against the Soghun was immediately killed. This facts made the Shinsengumi become very feared for their lack of pity and for their severity in the punishments.
Their preferred combative technique was many against one (or few), and this became more evident as soon as the group of the Shinsengumi enlarged.
A night, in June of 1864, the Ikeda-ya's Affair happened. The Shinsegumi succeeded in killing quite a lot members of the Ishin Shishis, theirs harshest enemies, and they became in a night the national heroes. Although victorious this mission resulted for the Shinsengumi in a very high price to be paid in lifes.
With the grow of national admiration, the Shinsegumi became a more and more large group, up to count 300 members, and it was necessary therefore to constitute a more organized inside structure.

Captain: Kandou isami
Vice captain: Hijikata Toshizo
Military adviser: Itou Kashitarou


Commanders of the 10 unities:
1: Okita Souji
2: Nagakura Shinpachi
3: Saitou Hajime
4: Matsubara Tadaji
5: Takeda Kanryuusai
6: Inoue Genzaburou
7: Tani Sanjyuurou
8: Toudou Heisuke
9: Suzuki Mikisaburou
10: Harada Sanosuke


Every unity included besides the commander, two lance-corporals and ten men.


The Five Articles Of The Shinsen Gumi Law
(from Serizawa Kamo's Biography)

Dai ichijou: Shidou ni somuki majiki koto.
First Article: It's not allowed to deviate from the path proper to man.

Dai nijou: Kyoku wo dassuru kotowo yurusazu.
Second Article: It's not allowed to leave the Shinsengumi.

Dai sanjyou: Katte ni kinsaku itasubekarazu.
Third Article: It's not allowed to raise money privately.

Dai shijou: Katte ni soshou toriatsukaubekarazu.
Fourth Article: It's not allowed to take part in other's litigation(other than Shinsengumi's).

Dai gojou: Watakushi no tousou wo yurusazu.
Fifth Article: It's not allowed to engage in private fights.


These five articles were read in front of every Shinsengumi member, along with some more items.

"Kumigashira ga moshi toushi shita baaiwa, kumishuu wa sono ba de toushi subeshi."
"If the leader of a unit is mortally wounded in a fight, all the members of the unit must fight and die on the spot."

"Hageshiki kokou ni oite shishou zokushutsusutomo kumigashira no shitai no hoka wa hikishirizokukotomakarinarazu."
"Even in a fight where the death toll is high, it is not allowed to retrieve the bodies of the dead, except the corpse of the leader of the unit."

"Moshi taishiga koumuni yorazushite machi de taigai no mono to arasoi, teki to yaiba wo kawashi, jibunga kizu wo oite aite wo shitomekirazuni nigashita baai, ushirokizu no baai no gotokimo seppuku wo meizuru."
"If a Shinsengumi member engage in a fight with a stranger, be it on duty or not, if he is wounded and can't kill the enemy, allowing him to run away, even in case of a wound in the back, seppuku is ordered."



samurai x mp3
 1/3 No Junj˘na Kanj˘
if u cant play 1/3 junjona kanjo click this site
 

rurounix68.jpg

rurounix69.jpg

rurounix38.jpg

g-kenkao.gif

LINKS